PESTLE Analysis of Denmark

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Located in Central Europe, Denmark has established itself as one of the world’s most developed countries, offering a high standard of living to all of its residents. With a stable Political and Sociocultural backdrop, Denmark has managed to build a thriving economy with no signs of slowing down — but is that really the case?

In this article, we’ll use PESTLE analysis to assess Denmark’s current and future standings, reviewing a multitude of crucial Political, Economic, Sociocultural, Technological, Legal, and Environmental factors affecting the country.


Here are the Political factors affecting Denmark:

European Union

Perhaps the most important factor affecting Denmark’s Political landscape is its membership in the European Union. Denmark is a long-standing member of the European Union; as such, it benefits from numerous trade (and other) policies which help to significantly boost the country’s economy. As it stands, Denmark is set to remain a member of the European Union in the near future, which should guarantee the country a strong Political and Economic foundation.


Here are the Economic factors affecting Denmark:

High GDP Per Capita

Denmark has one of the highest gross domestic products of any country in the world, per capita. This signals just how strong the Danish economy is. More importantly, however, this high GDP per capita allows Denmark’s residents an extremely high standard of living. It also leaves them with plenty of disposable income, which in turn helps to drive the economy.

Strong Service Sector

Denmark has an incredibly dominant service sector. Over 80% of the country’s jobs are accounted for by the service sector, which includes healthcare, education, transport, business services, and other such sub-industries. This powerful service sector is incredibly important for Denmark’s economy, as the country’s small geographical size may otherwise limit economic progress in terms of agriculture and other space-intensive sectors.

Low Income Inequality

Another important aspect of the Danish economy is the low income inequality; in fact, Denmark has some of the world’s lowest inequality rates. This low income inequality is achieved by high tax rates for high-earners, as well as high base salaries for both unskilled and skilled laborers. Low inequality indices are overwhelmingly positive for the country as they ensure all residents enjoy a similarly luxurious quality of life. However, some may argue the lack of a cheap labor force may thwart some industries (such as construction).


Here are the Sociocultural factors affecting Denmark:

Social Order

Generally speaking, Denmark has very good social order. Unlike many other countries (European countries included), Denmark does not seem to struggle with race or religion clashes. Similarly, there are few reports of issues related to the LGBT community. Overall, Danish citizens are very accepting of others. This directly improves the quality of life in Denmark, but also helps to boost Economic productivity.


Interestingly, an overwhelming majority of Danish citizens are religious. However, just a small portion of these individuals consider themselves “seriously religious”. It might be this partially religious society which contributes to the country’s good social order: from a young age, citizens are taught ethical and moral principles, but it also appears they mostly do not have strong thoughts related to religion.


Here are the Technological factors affecting Denmark:

Digital Country

Being an extremely developed country, it should come as no surprise that Denmark is considered a digital country. In fact, Denmark has previously been voted the European Union’s “most digital” country. Of course, this means the majority of Danish residents have smartphones and social media profiles; more importantly, it suggests they have access to they have access to important educational and medical technology.

Strong R&D

Denmark has an incredibly strong Research and Development sector. Once again, the country’s R&D sector is considered one of Europe’s strongest. It’s this R&D which keeps Denmark on the forefront of new technologies, allowing it to implement these technologies within the country, while also profiting from consultancy and export opportunities. Of course, this established R&D sector should come as no surprise, given the country’s Economic development and progressive thinking.


We couldn’t find any Legal factors affecting Denmark.


Here are the Environmental factors affecting Denmark:

Wind Energy

Denmark generates the equivalent of more than 50% of its energy needs from renewable sources — in particular, from wind. Given the country’s modest wind speeds, this shows a considerable investment into the renewable energy sector, with more than 6000 wind turbines currently in service. Importantly, the country’s desire to stay at the forefront of wind energy has lead its manufacturers (such as Vestas) to become some of the world’s biggest wind turbine supplies.

Oil Reserves

Despite a growing investment into renewable energy sources, Denmark is still very much dependent on fossil fuels. The country has considerable oil and gas reserves, which are largely used to supply current energy requirements. Denmark has previously exported some of its oil and gas surpluses, but they are no longer in a position to do so. In any case, this dependence on fossil fuels may prove to be a problem for Denmark in the near future (until complete renewable alternatives are rolled out) if the European Union imposes new taxes on fossil fuels.

Final Thoughts

Given its small size, Denmark is a surprisingly powerful country. This PESTLE analysis has uncovered a number of the country’s strengths and weaknesses — including those that are at play right now and those that might become more significant into the future.

In particular, Denmark’s strengths include its Political landscape (being a member of the European Union) and strong economy. Thanks to a high GDP per capita and low inequality Denmark is able to offer residents a fantastic quality of life. This, together with the country’s partially religious population, has created stable Sociocultural order. Finally, Denmark is well-developed from a Technological perspective, and is leading the race for wind power solutions.

The country’s primary weakness is its dependence on fossil fuels. However, with all things considered, it seems that Denmark is in a very strong position to continue developing as a country in all areas.

Image by Steen Jepsen